Read the full essay 2208 words
CHICAGO/ TURABIAN STYLE CITATION
The Chicago Manual of Style/Turabian citation style includes two systems for citations: a notes and bibliography system and the author-date system.
The notes and bibliography system is most commonly used in history courses.
This system uses footnotes/endnotes and a bibliography
Fundamentals of Chicago Citation
Generally, Chicago/Turabian citations require:
Title of book/article
Title of newspaper/journal
Publication month and date
City of publication
Date of access
URL or DOI (for some online sources)
What to Document/Cite
Paraphrases and summaries
Information and ideas that are not common knowledge, or are not available in a common reference work
Any information that you have borrowed, or anything that could be interpreted as your own if not cited
Contributor Information and Titles
Section 14.72 ofThe Chicago Manual of Styledetails author formatting for both footnotes and reference pages.
Last, First M.
Last, First M., and First M. Last.
More than 10 authors:
List the first seven authors, followed byet al.
*Authors who use initials in their first names (e.g., J.K. Rowling, C.S. Lewis), add a space between their initials.
Example: Salinger, J. D.The Catcher in the Rye. Boston: Little, Brown, 1951.
*For works with an editor/translator/compiler and no author, list the contributor's name, followed by ed./eds., comp./comps. or trans. after the contributor(s) last name(s), preceded by a comma.
Last, First M., ed.
Last, First M., and First M. Last, trans.
*For works with authors and additional contributors - such as an article in an edited anthology - list the author's name first. After the article title, list the additional contributor names, preceded by Edited by, Compiled by, Translated by or Ed., Comp., or Trans.
If a work has an editor and a translator, list them in the same order as they appear on the title page.
If the author is unknown, begin the citation with the title.
The Book with No Name. London: Omnibus Press, 1981.
Organizing Your Bibliography
Arrange citations entries in a reference list alphabetically by the author's last name.
Multiple works by different authors with the same last name should be alphabetized by the authors' first initials.
If a work is authored by a group or corporation, it should be listed as an author and alphabetized by the first word in the group's name.
Association of National Advertisers.
Capitalization in Chicago style follows standard "headline capitalization" rules.
The first and last word of article or publication titles
All major words, including:
Chicago/Turabian Basics: Footnotes
In the text:
Throughout the first half of the novel, Strether has grown increasingly open and at ease in Europe; this quotation demonstrates openness and ease.1
In the footnote:
1. Henry James,The Ambassadors(Rockville: Serenity, 2009), 34-40.
When citing a source more than once, use a shortened version of the footnote.
2. James,The Ambassadors, 14.
Citing sources with more than one author
If there are two or three authors of the source, include their full names in the order they appear on the source. If there are more than three authors, list only the first author followed by "et al." You should list all the authors in the bibliography.
John K. Smith, Tim Sampson, and Alex J. Hubbard,Example Book(New York: Scholastic, 2010), 65.
John K. Smith,Example Book(New York: Scholastic, 2010), 65.
Citing sources with other contributor information
You may want to include other contributor information in your footnotes such as editor, translator, or compiler. If there is more than one of any given contributor, include their full names in the order they appear on the source.
John Smith,Example Book, trans. Bill McCoy and Tim Thomas (New York: Random House, 2000), 15.
John Smith,Example Book, ed. Tim Thomas (New York: Random House, 1995), 19.
If the contributor is taking place of the author, use their full name instead of the author's and provide their contribution.
John Smith, trans.,Example Book(New York: Random House, 1992), 25.
Citing sources with no author
Example Book(New York: Scholastic, 2010), 65.
Citing a part of a work
When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page or section identifier. This can include specific pages, sections, or volumes. If page numbers cannot be referenced, simply exclude them. Below are different templates:
Webster's Dictionary, vol. 4 (Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1995).
Part of a multivolume work:
John Smith, ed., "Anthology," inWebster's Dictionary, ed. John Smith, vol 2. ofWebster's Dictionaries(Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1995).
Chapter in a book:
Garrett P. Serviss, "A Trip of Terror," inA Columbus of Space(New York: Appleton, 1911), 17-32.
Introduction, afterword, foreword, or preface:
Scott R Sanders, introduction toTounchstone Anthology of Contemporary Creative Nonfiction: Work