This essay Organization Development has a total of 557 words and 3 pages.
Organization Development (OD) is the application of behavioral science knowledge to improve an organization\'s health and effectiveness through it\'s ability to cope with environmental changes, improve internal relationship and increase problem-solving capabilities. OD is an effort of planned, organizationwide, and managed from the top, to increase organization effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organization process\'s using behavioral science. It must be managed from the top. Top management must have commitment to and knowledge about the goals of the program and must actively participate in the management of the effort. OD focuses on the entire organization; plant, firm or work group to attain the set intended goals. OD is both a professional field of social action and an area of scientific inquiry. It involves the creation and the subsequent reinforcement of change by using four major interventions: technostructural, human process, human resource management and strategic intervention. Some OD programs focuses more heavily on different kinds of change than others. The intent is to get a company to attain it\'s full potential in productivity and profits, to be able to solve it\'s own problems, and to manage change. This process is divided into three steps: entry, normative change, and structural change.
In the entry stage the aim is to establish a felt need for change using three approaches, interviewing, survey information or other means to give the organization inharmonious information in what people wants and what actually happen. The second approach is used to demonstrate the value of OD through particular projects in one or more subsystems of the client\'s organization. The final approach is a direct attempt to change values through the use of T-groups or similar technique.
Normative change step is directed at targeting as many organization members as possible to expose them to the new social norms. The intent is to change the climate of the organization.
The final step is structural change; it involves placing advocates of OD in position where they have the power, prestige, and flexibility to conduct further OD projects.
Technology change relates to the organization\'s way of doing its work. Technology changes were designed to make the production of product or service more efficient. A good example of technological change is the adoption of robotics to improve production efficiency in the automobile industry. Technological changes are more effectively implemented from the bottom up. The lower-level technology experts act as idea champions.
Almost any change in the management of the organization falls under the structural change category. The implementation of new pay incentives, an affirmative action program, and a move from functional to product structure are all examples of structural changes. Successful structural changes are accomplished from the top down. The experts of administrative or structural improvement originate at upper middle to top managers.
Organizations have traditionally structured themselves into three forms: functional departments that are task specialized, self-contained units that are oriented to specific products, customers, or regions and matrix structures that combine both functional specialization and self-containment.
The basic hierarchical structure is probably the most widely used in organizations today. The management structure organized with, top management at the top and middle to lower employees spread out in a descending order. The organization more often than not would be divided into different departments or functional units, for example accounting, advertising, marketing, human
Topics Related to Organization Development
Economy, Organizational theory, Management, Business, Change management, Organization development, Business process, Process management, Enterprise modelling, Organizing, Business process reengineering
Essays Related to Organization Development
Franklin D. RooseveltFranklin D. Roosevelt On January 30, 1882 in Hyde Park, New York Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born. James Roosevelt, Franklin\'s father, was a prosperous railroad official and landowner(Lawson 25). His predecessors, when they came from the Netherlands, were succes Roosevelt learned from private tutors, not going to school until the age of fourteen. He had already studied German, Latin and French by the time he had started school(Freidel 6). Sailing, bird hunting and stamp collecting were among
Entrepreneurial Adventure:Entrepreneurial Adventure: Entrepreneurial Adventure: The Development of Economics in The United States “Capitalism came in the first ships.” -Carl N. Degler Barit Brown United States History Saturday, March 18, 2000 4,753 words The United States was a nation of development. It was a nation of growth and of innovation. From the signing of the Declaration of Independence, to the end of World War II and so forth, complex dilemmas called for complex solutions and complex solutions called for innova
Fdr's Influence As PresidentFdr\'s Influence As President Some have called him the best president yet. Others have even claimed that he was the world\'s most influential and successful leader of the twentieth century. Those claims can be backed up by the overwhelming support that he received from his citizens throughout his four terms in office. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had fallen into in 1929. His social reforms gave people a ne
Gerald FordGerald Ford When Gerald R. Ford took the oath of office on August 9, 1974, he declared, I assume the Presidency under extraordinary circumstances.... This is an hour of history that troubles our minds and hurts our hearts. It was indeed an unprecedented time. He had been the first Vice President chosen under the terms of the Twenty-fifth Amendment and, in the aftermath of the Watergate scandal, was succeeding the first President ever to resign. Ford was confronted with almost insuperable tasks.
ImmigrationImmigration For many immigration to the United States would be a new beginning during 19th to early 20th century. There were many acts and laws to limit the number immigrating to the United States. Many of these acts were due to prejudice and misunderstanding of a culture. One such act was the Chinese Exclusion Act. Form this one act many immigration laws and acts were made against foreigners. They hoped to control the number of immigrants arriving on the American shores. The Chinese Exclusion A
Great DepressionGreat Depression The Great Depression was the worst economic slump ever in U.S. history, and one which spread to virtually all of the industrialized world. The depression began in late 1929 and lasted for about a decade. Many factors played a role in bringing about the depression; however, the main cause for the Great Depression was the combination of the greatly unequal distribution of wealth throughout the 1920\'s, and the extensive stockmarket speculation that took place during the latter par
Great DepressionGreat Depression Greg Squires The Great Depression was the worst economic slump ever in U.S. history, and one which touched virtually all of the industrialized world. The Depression began in late 1929 and lasted for nearly a decade. Many factors played a role in bringing about the Depression; however, the main cause for the Great Depression was the combination of the greatly unequal distribution of wealth throughout the 1920\'s, and the extensive stock market speculation that took place during t
Jefferson PrinciplesJefferson Principles ureAlex Marion Mr. Uremovic per 2 10/5/00 Thomas Jefferson is remembered in history not only for the offices he held, but also for his belief in the natural rights of man as expressed in the Declaration of Independence and his faith in the people’s ability to govern themselves. Through his political career, Thomas Jefferson advocated democratic principles and adhered to his liberal ideology. However, as a president he found it difficult to maintain these policies in the nois
Honest Abe (Abe Lincoln)Honest Abe (Abe Lincoln) INTRODUCTION Abraham Lincoln, Honest Abe, is one of the greatest American Presidents. He is known today for his Presidency in which he fought the Confederacy during the Civil War and abolished slavery with the Emancipation Proclamation and later the Thirteenth Amendment. He was an intelligent, honest, and just leader who governed at a critical time in American history. PRE-PRESIDENCY Lincoln was born on the twelfth of February 1809 in a cabin three miles outside of Hodge
Aztec CultureAztec Culture Aztec Nation The Aztec Nation A distant sound is heard. It sounds like a deep drum being hit with a heavy instrument. You hear it again and strain your eyes in the direction of the sound. All around you is dense jungle. Snakes slither between your legs. You hear the sound once again. In front of you is a dense stand of ferns. You part them and look down into a wide open valley. The valley gets so wide and it is so green that it takes your breath away. But that is not what you are l
Gender Issues In Sri LankaGender Issues In Sri Lanka Gender issues In general, when considering third world countries, most would say that they have some very similar characteristics. Third world countries are often thought of as places that are impoverished, have significantly high birthrates, are economically dependent on advanced countries, and have not evolved socially in regards to equal rights issues. Although many of these characteristics do apply to Sri Lanka, the latter has definitely evoked some discussion on t
PastoralismPastoralism Pastoralism is an economy based on herding. Pastoralists maintain herds of animals and use their products to support themselves directly and to exchange with other civilizations. It is especially associated with such terrain as steppes, rolling hills, grasslands, and the like-areas of low rainfall where cultivation is difficult without irrigation, but where grasses are plentiful enough to support herds of animals.1 Pastoralism was originally founded in the old world. Pastoralists are
Structures Of ResisitanceStructures Of Resisitance The nature of interaction between traditional agrarian society and the ‘modern world’ has remained a controversial debate amongst anthropologists, sociologists and political theorists. It remains contentious as to whether the dominance of modern values over traditional is desirable; whether the arrival of the market and modern commerce betters or worsens the conditions of rural society and its relationship with the metropol; whether such change is received with apprehen
Yanomamo TribeYanomamo Tribe The Yanomamo My name is Eric Dunning and this is my proposal to go and study the Yanomamo tribe in the rain forests of Brazil. I have compiled a historical outline of the Yanomamo tribe and some of their religion and culture, ranging from marital status to the type of food they eat. I have chosen this tribe because according to many anthropologists the Yanomamo are perhaps the last culture to have come in contact with the modern world. The Yanomamo people of Central Brazil are one
Chicken Soup For The SoulChicken Soup For The Soul Anthropology may be dissected into four main perspectives, firstly physical or biological anthropology, which is an area of study concerned with human evolution and human adaptation. Its main components are human paleontology, the study of our fossil records, and human genetics, which examines the ways in which human beings differ from each other. Also adopted are aspects of human ecology, ethnology, demography, nutrition, and environmental physiology. From the physical
Gothic Architecture Vs. Egyptian ArchitectureGothic Architecture Vs. Egyptian Architecture Gothic Architecture Vs. Egyptian Architecture The sediment richens the soil year after year by the Nile that floods the valley and rises twenty to thirty feet high. African villagers expect the seasonal rains; the precipitation determines the crops productivity. The valley cut by this dominating river is also where one of the greatest Neolithic civilizations grew. The originals were of mixed races but all derived from the white races. By 4000 B.C. th
Romanesque ArchitectureRomanesque Architecture THE BASILICA AND BASILICAN CHURCHES A great deal of conjecture has been expended on the question as to the genesis of the Roman basilica. For present purposes it may be sufficient to observe that the addition of aisles to the nave was so manifest a convenience that it might not improbably have been thought of, even had models not been at hand in the civic buildings of the Empire. The most suitable example that can be chosen as typical of the Roman basilica of the age of C
DeregulationDeregulation Deregulation of the U.S. airline industry has resulted in ticket prices dropping by a third, on an inflation-adjusted basis. As a result some 1.6 million people fly on 4,000 aircraft every day. Airlines carried 643 million passengers in 1998, a 25% increase over 1993 and the FAA estimates that the nation¡¦s airline system will have to accommodate 917 million passengers by the year 2008. The growth in air travel threatens to overwhelm the presently inadequate air traffic control syst
Privatization Of AirportsPrivatization Of Airports For 51 years Bergstrom Air Force Base was home to fighter pilots, bombers, troop carriers and reconnaissance jets. It was the first port of call for President Lyndon B. Johnson on his trips home to LBJ Country aboard Air Force One, it was where Chuck Yeager, the first pilot to break the sound barrier, once brought a disabled jet to rest in an emergency landing. In September 1993, in the path of military cutbacks Bergstrom Air Force Base was closed. But the timing was fo
Adolf HitlerAdolf Hitler ADOLF HITLER Rob Moffitt Mrs. Flinn CP Enlish 10 April 16, 2000 1. Hitler’s Early Life 2. Hitler’s World War I Service 3. Free Corps 4. Weimar Republic 5. German Worker’s Party 6. Munich Putsch 7. Mein Kampf 8. Hitler’s Rise to Power 9. Hitler Launches the War 10. Hitler’s Last Days The interesting life of Adolf Hitler is not fully known to people. Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, the fourth child of Alois Schickelgruber and Klara Hitler in the Austrian town of Braunau. Two
The Life And Times Of The Man Who Invented The TelThe Life And Times Of The Man Who Invented The Telephone Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) Alexander Graham Bell is remembered today as the inventor of the telephone, but he was also an outstanding teacher of the deaf and a prolific inventor of other devices. Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, to a family of speech educators. His father, Melville Bell, had invented Visible Speech, a code of symbols for all spoken sounds that was used in teaching deaf people to speak. Aleck Bell studied at Edi
The Life Of Mao ZedongThe Life Of Mao Zedong The Life of Mao Zedong Dressed in the drab military uniform that symbolized the revolutionary government of Communist China, Mao Zedong\'s body still looked powerful, like an giant rock in a gushing river. An enormous red flag draped his coffin, like a red sail unfurled on a Chinese junk, illustrating the dualism of traditional China and the present Communist China that typified Mao. 1 A river of people flowed past while he lay in state during the second week of September
Analysis Of Looking Backward: 2000-1887Analysis Of Looking Backward: 2000-1887 Edward Bellamy\'s Looking Backward: 2000-1887 was an attempt to show Americans who desired the utopian sense of community what it could truly be. Looking Backward addressed the yearnings of a society stricken by economic panics and social collapse by proposing an Eden-like community in which war, hunger, greed and malice were eradicated from society. While the story followed the wonderment of Julian West as he awoke in a Boston of 2000 AD after 113 years o
Profiles In CourageProfiles In Courage John F. Kennedy, the author of Profiles in Courage, felt there were many politically courageous people. Kennedy seemed to define courageous as someone willing to risk one\'s personal assets to stand up for he believes is right and good. Eight different people, including John Quincy Adams, Thomas Benton, and Sam Houston, are illustrated in this book. Each of these people made outstanding political moves just defend one\'s beliefs. While some were scrutinized, others amazed the
Fed And Monetary PolicyFed And Monetary Policy Justin McVay Period 4 Macroeconomics Term Paper FEDERAL RESERVE AND MONETARY POLICY Monetary policy affects the economic and financial decisions of virtually all of us from workers to borrowers to investors (Rukeyser 105). Louis Rukeyser wrote, If we want monetary policy to play its proper role in a true national economic reconstruction, the authentic task is to get the Fed to stop bouncing like a Chinese Ping-Pong ball, switching every few months between the inflationary
Haley Daividson (Strategy)Haley Daividson (Strategy) 1. William Harley and Arthur Davidson wanted to take the work out of riding bicycles in 1901. After being joined by the Arthur brothers, Walter and William, they came up with the idea of putting a motor and a bicycle together. Many engine changes were made before the builders were satisfied. In 1903, they created the first Harley-Davidson motorcycle and produced three that year. Harley built its first building in 1907 on Juneau Avenue in Milwaukee. That same year, 150
Just-In-Time ProductionJust-In-Time Production Just-in-time production is considered to be on the leading edge of technological advancement. With improvements in the virtually every industry, maintaining an effective production line while minimizing inventory costs is a very feasible option. Just-in-time systems are designed to keep inventory costs at a minimum, unlike the ways of old, with large warehouses loaded with back inventory. With technology allowing instantaneous communication around the world, production li
Japanese EconomyJapanese Economy How has Japan fared with it’s economies booms and slumps? This investigation is based on stage 4 unit 1 of the Business and Economics A-level course, “What happens in booms and slumps?”. The unit focuses how people and businesses are affected by booms and slumps, why they continuously appear and the governments role in helping to control these two events. The investigation will therefore focus on Japan and the way booms and slumps affect the Japanese businesses and people. To de
MinivansMinivans The minivan today falls roughly within the $30000 - $40000 price range. As a result, not everyone who could benefit from this automobile can afford it. Minivans target young families (parents between the ages of 25-34) with 2-3 children or more residing in rural and suburban areas in which transportation needs are involved. Despite the minivan\'s convenience, studies from show its target group has been decreasing and has been forecasted to continue decreasing in the years to come. Many
PrivatizationPrivatization Privatization What is Privatization? Privatization is the process of transferring productive operations and assets from the public sector to the private sector. Broadly defined in this fashion, privatization is much more than selling an enterprise to the highest bidder, as it includes contracting out, leasing, private sector financing of infrastructure projects, liquidation, mass privatization, etc. My testimony will argue that there is no single best approach to privatization; the
The Hungarian Edition Of CosmopolitanThe Hungarian Edition Of Cosmopolitan TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT 3 OVERVIEW OF THE HUNGARIAN MARKET 3 BACKGROUND 4 DESCRIPTION OF THE PRODUCT 4 THE CONCEPT OF THE PRODUCT 4 PROFILE OF THE TARGET CONSUMERS 5 CURRENT MARKET SITUATION 5 SWOT ANALYSIS 5 PEST ANALYSIS 6 STRUCTURE OF THE MAGAZINE 6 PRICING STRATEGY 7 PROMOTION MIX 7 ADVERTISING 7 SALES PROMOTION 8 PUBLIC RELATIONS 9 CONCLUSIONS 9 APPENDIX 10 LIST OF SOURCES 17 ABSTRACT Primarily based on an interview with Ms. Eniko Horvath, marketing
Zero InflationZero Inflation Introduction Hyper inflation has plagued most of the world’s developing countries over the past decades. Countries in the industrialised world, too, have at times duelled with dangerously high inflation rates in the post WWII era. With varying degrees of success, all have employed great efforts to bring their inflation rates within acceptable limits. Generally, a moderate rate of inflation has been the ultimate goal. More recently, however, a few countries have pursued policies th
Outsourcing And Its Advantage And DisadvantageOutsourcing And Its Advantage And Disadvantage Introduction : Nowadays, many organisation are outsourcing their non- core activities to an external agents. Distribution is one of these activities as distribution consider as a non-core activity for many firms. Although, there are many advantage for outsourcing, there are also risks and disadvantage in this process. In this essay I would explain the term outsourcing and explain why organisations are preferring to outsource some of its functions in
Australian Welfare SystemAustralian Welfare System PART 1 -INTRODUCTION Review Process On 29 September 1999, the Minister for Family and Community Services announced the Government\'s intention to review the Australian welfare system. The Minister appointed this Reference Group to consult with the community and provide advice to the Government on welfare reform. The Group\'s terms of reference and membership are at Attachment A to this report. In March this year the Reference Group released an Interim Report that outlin
Germany AnalysisGermany Analysis INDUSTRY IN GERMANY Country Issues Country issues related to Germany are addressed in four contexts. The areas of consideration are (1) cultural, social, and demographic trends and concerns, (2) political/governmental concerns, (3) exchange rate issues, and (4) macroeconomic issues. Cultural, Social, and Demographic Trends and Concerns Germany is the slightly larger then the combined size of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. (137,691 square miles.) Germany is a nation of 81.5 mi
Public CompaniesPublic Companies PUBLIC COMPANIES Public Companies are those which are listed on the stock exchange. The public may buy and sell shares in them. A public company will have the word \'limited\' after the company name (usually abbreviated to Ltd). Characteristics The characteristics of a public company are that they are limited by shares and have limited liability. \'Limited by shares\' means that shares in the company can be bought and sold freely (shares are featured in the stock-exchange). Whil
Why The Wall Street Bubble Must Burst?Why The Wall Street Bubble Must Burst? Why the Wall Street Bubble Must Burst? In 1938, and in the teeth of the longest and fiercest depression that the United States had ever known, capital spending hit an all time high. Thats right! In 1938 the men who owned America began to pour millions of Dollars into new plant and equipment as if there was no tomorrow. We dont think much about it today, because it has been a long time since the United States has experienced a real bone jolting economic sl
AccountingAccounting On September 28, 1998, Chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission Arthur Levitt sounded the call to arms in the financial community. Levitt asked for, immediate and coordinated action… to assure credibility and transparency of financial reporting. Levitt’s speech emphasized the importance of clear financial reporting to those gathered at New York University. Reporting which has bowed to the pressures and tricks of earnings management. Levitt specifically addresses five of
Advertising, The Good With The BadAdvertising, The Good With The Bad Mass Communication Process Thesis Paper Advertising (Chapter 11) Advertising is a necessary market force that is responsible for the success of most, and involved in all, forms of Multimedia. It is also responsible for some of our most powerful and long-living icons that dominate the American landscape. Advertising, like it or not, is everywhere. It is on buses, billboards and hot-air balloons. It invades our living rooms, our classrooms and almost every aspect
The Fed and Interest RatesThe Fed and Interest Rates Dave Pettit of The Wall Street Journal writes a daily column that appears inside the first page of the journal\'s Money & Investment section. If the headlines of Mr. Pettit\'s daily column are any accurate record of economic concerns and current issues in the business world, the late weeks of March and the early weeks of April in 1994 were intensely concerned with interest rates. To quote, Industrials Edge Up 4.32 Points Amid Caution on Interest Rates, and Industria
Economic Analysis of HawaiiEconomic Analysis of Hawaii Business Economic Analysis of Hawaii Hawaii, with an area of 28,313 sq. km (10,932 sq. mi.), is the 43rd largest state in the U.S.; 6.9% of the land is owned by the federal government. It consists mainly of the Hawaiian Islands, eight main islands and 124 islets, reefs, and shoals. The major islands in order of size are Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, Kauai, Molokai, Lanai, Nihau, and Kahoolawe. Population growth has increased by 80,000 persons over the past five years. Demograph
Growth of NYS BusinessGrowth of NYS Business April 17, 1996 For a number of reasons, business enterprise in New York grew by leaps and bounds between 1825 and 1860. New York\'s growth between the years 1825 and 1860 can be attributed to a number of factors. These include but cannot be limited to the construction of the Erie Canal, the invention of the telegraph, the developed of the railroads, the establishment of Wall Street and banking, the textile, shipping, agriculture and newpaper industries, the development of
Postal Service As a MonopolyPostal Service As a Monopoly In the United States economy most markets can be classified into four different markets structures. But, each and every market in the United States is completely unique from the others. Generally the best type of market structure for the general public is per-fect competition because it creates the lowest possible price for the public. There are some exceptions were perfect competition isn’t the best choice for the public on account of various reasons. The United Sta
Coke vs. Pepsi: Fighting for Foreign MarketsCoke vs. Pepsi: Fighting for Foreign Markets November 27, 1995 Introduction The soft-drink battleground has now turned toward new overseas markets. While once the United States, Australia, Japan, and Western Europe were the dominant soft-drink markets, the growth has slowed down dramatically, but they are still important markets for Coca-Cola and Pepsi. However, Eastern Europe, Mexico, China, Saudi Arabia, and India have become the new hot spots. Both Coca-Cola and Pepsi are forming joint bott
Internet CensorshipInternet Censorship Mr. Speaker, distinguished members of the house, The opposition concedes that proctecting children and to enable adults to avoid material which offends their personal & community standards should be one of the goals of the government. Having said that, we must find realistic and practical solutions in order to address this issue. Is regulating the internet the answer? Before answering this question, there are many factors to be considered. As the member of the opposition has
History Of The EuroHistory Of The Euro It has been a long time in the making, but scheduled plans have marked January 1, 2002 as the date that the new Euro currency banknotes and coins will be introduced in Europe. July 1, 2002 is the designated day that the changeover to a monetary union will be complete. The discussion as to the risks and benefits of this monetary union has been all the talk around the world. This union will have vast and far-reaching effects that will touch not only the countries in the union,
The Deficit for Those Economics ClassesThe Deficit for Those Economics Classes here\'s one on the deficit for those economics classes Subject: the deficit good or bad Deficit Spending “Spending financed not by current tax receipts, but by borrowing or drawing upon past tax reserves.” , Is it a good idea? Why does the U.S. run a deficit? Since 1980 the deficit has grown enormously. Some say its a bad thing, and predict impending doom, others say it is a safe and stable necessity to maintain a healthy economy. When the U.S. government
AsiaAsia A large economic downturn in East Asia threatens to end its nearly 30 year run of high growth rates. It is hard to understand what these declines will actualy do to the world market. The crisis has caused Asian currencies to fall 50-60%, stock markets to decline 40%, banks to close, and property values to drop. The crisis was brought on by currency devaluations, bad banking practices, high foreign debt, loose government regulation, and corruption. Due to East Asia\'s large impact on the wor
Diminishing ReturnsDiminishing Returns Law of Diminishing Returns The Law of diminishing returns is a key one in economics. It is used to explain many of the ways the economy works and changes. It is a relatively simple idea; spending and investing more and more in a product where one of the factors of production remains the same means the enterprise will eventually run out of steam. The returns will begin to diminish in the long run. If more fertilizer and better machinery are used on an acre of farmland, the yie
Gold Price In The UsGold Price In The Us The largest demand for gold is in jewelry and investments. Gold is known as a metal that is easily used and has many industrial applications. Since gold is so durable and luxurious, many people invest in jewelry, stocks, and gold bonds. Considering the fact that gold is considered a world-wide valuable good, many economies have gold reserves to help protect themselves in times of need. Nevertheless, factors of supply and demand have contributed to the decrease of the price o