The Pantheon


Introduction
I chose to report on the pantheon because I’ve seen pictures and I am also very fascinated by all the Roman monuments. I looked all around the internet and libraries. The Pantheon was very hard to find information about. It was very challenging but I found enough information to complete this report.
This famous building stands in the business district of Romemuch as it was built some 18 centuries ago. Amazingly, it has withstood the ravages of both the elements and war permitting a firsthand view of a unique product constructed by Roman hands. Now, it is exposed to acid rain and fumes from passing automobiles and overshadowed by buildings of inferior taste; but, with trust in the future, the Pantheon will survive.
Unrecognized, the design of this ancient concrete building reveals unparalleled features not encountered in modern design
standards. Recent studies reveal several major cracks in the dome, but it still functions unimpaired. This condition will surely excite
the curiosity of our structural engineers. The building was built entirely without steel reinforcing rods to resist tensile cracking, so
necessary in concrete members, and for this concrete dome with a long span to last centuries is incredible. Today, no engineer
would dare build this structure without steel rods! Modern codes of engineering practice would not permit such mischief. No
investor with knowledge of concrete design would provide the funding. Additional constraints when attempting to build a structure as large as the Pantheon will be discussed later, but briefly they include the use of inadequate hand tools and unsafe lifting devices. I believe we can learn from this activity. Workers can build from a plan and can successfully use their proven practices only if construction quality controls are maintained.
History tells us that the Pantheon is a Greek word meaning to honor all Gods (particularly the Olympian divinities). It is ironic that our building has existed throughout many wars while being dedicated to all Gods; one can readily perceive this to be a temple for our one God. And, the Church has claimed this holy structure as a resting place for its most famous Popes, so we continue to
honor its magnificent divinity.
The first incarnation of this ancient temple was built by Agrippa, the son-in-law of the Roman Emperor Augustus, about 27 B.C. Today, above the entrance carved in stone are the words M. AGRIPPA L. F. COS. TERTIUM FECIT which is translated,
Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, in his third consulate, made it. Indeed, it is worth mentioning that Agrippa\'s engineering talents
were used in building the famous Pont de Gard aqueduct in France.
As with many cities, tragedy in the form of large fires such as those of 60, 64, 79, 100 and 110 A.D. seemed to strike Rome.
Originally, many Roman buildings contained travertine (limestone rock) which easily cracked in fires. The first Pantheon was
severely damaged and required replacement except for some parts of the lower porch section and foundation.
The Pantheon was rebuilt by the Emperor Hadrian during the period 118 to 128 A.D. (a time given by Ward-Perkins).2 But the
Ward-Perkins\'s period is disputed by, Lugli who said the building was started sometime after 123 A.D. and was finished by
Emperor Pius about 140 A.D.3 However, most of the bricks were made and placed in the Pantheon in 123 A.D., a date that the
maker stamped on his bricks. This was discovered in 1892 by the French archaeologist, George Chedanne. It appears the
construction of the rotunda walls took a period of 4 to 5 years, and the dome required a like period because of its height and the
meager tools the Romans used. This long construction period was fortunate as it gave this pozzolan concrete ample time to cure
and gain strength.
Was the second temple like the first? Yes, the fundamental principle of the old Roman religion required that the temples be rebuilt without changes in original form. Tradition required that the main entrance face north, and thus the whole building was oriented on the north-south axis of the building.
A description of its structural features is separated into the configuration, foundation ring, circular walls, and dome to more clearly define various components. How these pieces are unique in view of today\'s design requirements will be discussed shortly.
Body
The Pantheon is one of the great spiritual buildings of the world. It was built as a Roman temple and later consecrated