Plato On Justice

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Plato On Justice

In my opinion, Socrates analysis of the human natural is very true as it
ultimately brings us his definition of Justice. I agree with his theory of the
human natural but not his social-political theory. But In order to understand
Platos theory of human natural and his social-political theory. However, we
must examine each one of them closely. Plato believed that no one is self
sufficient enough to live individually. Human beings are not created equally;
some of us are born wiser then the rest or some of us are just born stronger.
For this reason, only the select few among us are supposed to know what is best
for society and therefore becomes the ruler of everyone else. Our reasoning,
sprite, and natural wants are all part of human natural. In the book 1 of The
Republic, Plato had several detailed discussion of the nature of justice with
other speakers in a dialogue form. In the process of discussion involves
Socrates questioning, arguing against various inadequate theory that attempts
to define the true meaning of Justice. From the rich old man Cephalus, we
learned that justice involves with telling the truth, and repaying ones
debts. But Socrates points out that this definition of justice is inadequate
because it cannot account for the instances of certain circumstances. The simple
example of returning a borrowed weapon to an insane friends who demands the
return of his weapon, would be an instance of following the rule but would not
seem to be just. (331C) Then Polemarchus, Cephaluss son attempt to define
justice by proposing that justice means  one should pay what is owed Since
the returning of refusing to return the borrowed weapon would clearly benefit
ones friend. But Socrates said that harm our enemies is only likely to make
them even more unjust than they already are. (335b-336a) After that,
Thrasymachus came up with his own definition of justice is nothing more than the
advantage of the stronger; those in positions of power use law to decide what is
right. The kind of justice practices in anywhere depends on the type of
government they have. Socrates does not disagree with the view if the facts
about the society are as Thrasymachus says they are. However, he argues that
sometimes rulers make mistakes, in that case obedience to the law may be leads
to its own disadvantage, therefore Thrasymachuss definition is also in
adequate. Furthermore, Socrates says that The best ruler must always know how to
rule. They should rule for the art of ruling, but not their own interest alone.
(342e) Later, Gloucon suggest that human beings--given an opportunity to do so
without being caught and therefore without suffering any punishment or loss of
good reputation--would naturally choose a life of injustice, in order to
maximize their own interests. His definition of Justice is that its an equal
contract, a mean between what is the best-doing injustice without paying the
penalty and the worse-suffering injustice without being able to avenge one self.
(359a) Adeimantus narrows the discussion further by pointing out that that to
have a good reputation of justice is more important than justice is itself,
whether or not that person really does. (363b) In an attempt to provide an
adequate, satisfying definition of justice, Socrates tries to make an analogy
between the justice of individual human beings and of an entire society or city.
Since the crucial elements of justice may be easier to observe on the larger
scale like a city than on one individual. The focus Socrates is a perfect city,
because the city will represent human soul. (369a) He began with a detailed
analysis of the formation, structure, and organization of this ideal city. He
argues that since Individual human beings are not self-sufficient; no one
working alone can acquire all of the necessities of life. In order to resolve
this difficulty, we gather together into society for the mutual achievement of
our common goals. If each of us specializes in the practice of a specific art,
we can work more efficiently. To make this idea city healthy opposite of a
feverish city, Socrates states that the fundamental needs of human beings in the
society are food, shelter, and cloths. From such needs, some additional
exigencies emerge that become necessary only because of the needs of the defense
of the city against external attacks or internal disputes. He proposed
additional class of citizens, the guardians who are responsible for guarding the
city. In order to fulfill their proper functions, the guardian then