War of 1812 Pointless?
The War of 1812 proved to be the most serious challenge to face the United States since the countrys birth. This Second war of Independence perhaps changed American history as we know it though. This essay will discuss the causes for this war assessing whether there actually were valid reasons for the United States and Britain going to war or whether the whole 1812 war was just born out of pointless aggression
The war of 1812 was a very unnecessary war. It broke out just as one of its chief causes (The Orders in Council) was removed and its greatest battle (New Orleans) was fought just after peace was signed. The war was unnecessary from a British point of view but for the Americans it was inescapable. The Royal Navy had kidnapped 3,800 American sailors and pressed them into service. The Orders In Council had deprived the United States of a profitable trade with France and can be seen as having ruthlessly subordinated American economic interests to the political interests of the British Empire. American farmers also blamed the orders, perhaps unfairly, for a fall in agricultural prices that produced a depression in the West in the years immediately before the war. On the frontier it was universally believed that Indian restlessness war stirred up by British agents although really American oppression has to be seen as a big cause of this too.
Americas war with Britain seemed inevitable although the Americans did everything they decently could to avoid it, although there seemed to be endless provocation by Britain, for example in 1807 when a British frigate, the leopard opened fire on an American frigate the Chesapeake. The choice before America, Jefferson the former president and his successor Madison agreed was war or submission to fight or to undo one of the main achievements of the revolution and accept total defeat in international affairs to England. As John Quincy Adams put it It was not a matter of dollars and cents, no alternative was left but war or the abandonment of our right as an independent nation The offences committed against the United States were the major provocations for the war, reasons other then vindication can be regarded as rationalisation. There was an obvious anger for what British had done to America and many Americans merely wanted revenge but the war was fought for much more then that.
The radical expansionism and the belief that Canada would inevitably be annexed to the United States also has to be a major cause for America going to war. Another primary cause of the war was the rise of Tecumseh the Indian chief who was believed to be backed by the British. This caused an urgency for the Americans to expel the British from Canada. The War Hawks, the congress at the time of Madisons presidency, were pushing for the invasion of Canada and an attack upon the Savages who had been tormenting homes on the frontier. Madison never really expected or desired the annexation of Canada and neither did his colleague Monroe (Secretary of State)
A compromise with Britain would have been very difficult due to the increasing sectionalism in America. It might have been true as George Washington had said in his farewell address that East, West, North and South had more in common then points of difference but since the long Napoleonic wars which had been fought and there repercussions for America the differences seemed to mount rapidly. New England had virtually everything in common with British Maritime interests but the further South and West you travelled the more opinion leaders you found who wanted a war with Britain as the road to expansion. It was these Southern and Western states that formed part of Madisons constituency and had elected him in 1808 and when he was elected again in 1812, therefore Madison was very dependent on these states much more so than the Northern New England states.
The opinions of these Southern and Western states reflected the ideas of Henry Clay, the leader of the War hawks, who himself was from Kentucky a Western state. The war hawks desire for land, Canadian or Indian, fear of a