History 111

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History 111

1.Define Scalawags:  Southerners willing to cooperate with the Republicans because they accepted the results of the war and to advance their own interests
2.Define Carpetbaggers:  Northerners who went to the South as idealists to help the freed slaves, as employees of the federal government, or more commonly as settlers hoping to improve themselves
3.What is Sharecropping?  A system of farm tenancy once common in some parts of the United States.  In the United States the institution arose at the end of the Civil War out of the plantation system.  Many planters had ample land but little money for wages.  At the same time most of the former slaves were uneducated and impoverished.  The solution was the sharecropping system, which continued the workers in the routine of cotton cultivation under rigid supervision.  Economic features of the system were gradually extended to poor white farmers.  The cropper brought to the farm only his own and his family's labor.  Most other requirements-land, animals, equipment, and seed-were provided by the landlord, who generally also advanced credit to meet the living expenses of the cropper family.  Most croppers worked under the close direction of the landlord, and he marketed the crop and kept accounts.  Normally in return for their work they received a share (usually half) of the money realized.  From this share was deducted the debt to the landlord.  High interest charges, emphasis on production of a single cash crop, slipshod accounting, and chronic cropper irresponsibility were among the abuses of the system.  Farm mechanization and a marked reduction in cotton acreage have virtually put an end to the system.
4.What is the Thirteenth Amendment?   The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, by the House on January 31, 1865, and ratified on December 6, 1865, abolished slavery as a legal institution.  The Constitution, although never mentioning slavery by name, refers to slaves as "such persons" in Article I, Section 9 and a person held to service or labor in Article IV, Section 2.  The Thirteenth Amendment, in direct terminology, put an end to this. The amendment states:
Section 1:  Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Section 2:  Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation."
5.What is the Fourteenth Amendment?  Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868.  Article I, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of the 14th amendment.
Section 1.  All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Section 2.  Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
Section 3.  No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a